Native American Historical Events: July 2018

Things really heat up on the Prairie during July, if we don't get enough rain, crops will burn, too much rain and crops will suffer as well. Even the folks who raise livestock are dependent on the environment. We are dependent on each other to survive all natural disasters, and hopefully we've learned our lessons from history and do not create hardships for each other.

July 14, 1815:

Chief Black Buffalo, Brule' Teton Sioux dies and is given a full military burial. Chief Black Buffalo was instrumental in preventing a bloody fight between the Lewis & Clark expedition and the Teton Sioux. The two groups parted company without any violence.

July 4, 1827: The Cherokees adopt a national constitution completing a decade of political development. Modeled after the United States Constitution, with three branches of government and an abbreviated bill of rights, the Cherokee constitution furthers the transfer of Cherokee political power from the villages to a national government.

July 4, 1838: Chief Black Hawk, a Native American war leader of the Sauk Indian Tribe gave a farewell speech at Old Settlers Park in Fort Madison, Iowa.
~From the publication, Indian Country Today

July 3, 1863: After the end of the Santee Sioux Uprising, Little Crow leaves the area. Eventually he returns to steal horses and supplies so that he and his followers can survive. On this day, near Hutchinson, Minnesota, Little Crow and his son stop to pick some berries. Minnesota has recently enacted a law which pays a bounty of $25.00 for every Sioux scalp. Some settlers see Little Crow and they open fire, Little Crow is mortally wounded. His killer would get a bonus bounty of $500.00. Little Crow's scalp would go on public display in St. Paul. Little Crow's son, Wowinapa, escapes but is later captured in Dakota Territory.

July 1865: General Patrick Conner organizes 3 columns of soldiers to begin an invasion of the Powder River Basin, his orders were to attack and kill every male Indian over twelve years of age from the Black Hills to the Big Horn Mountains. Wagon trains begin to cross the basin on their way to Montana and gold.

July 1866: Colonel Carrington begins to build Ft. Phil Kearny, he makes his plan on the best hunting grounds of the Plains Indians. The Cheyenne scouts decide that the camp is too strong to attack on their own. They form an alliance with other Plains tribes and begin to harass any soldiers leaving or going to the Fort.

July 19, 1881: Sitting Bull and 186 of his remaining followers surrender at Fort Buford, North Dakota. He is sent to Fort Randall, South Dakota for two years as a prisoner of war instead of being pardoned, as promised.

July 16 1887: On July 16, 1887, J.D.C. Atkins, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, wrote in his annual report that English would be the exclusive language used at all Indian schools. He argued that native languages were not only of no use, but were detrimental to the education and civilization of Indians.

July 9, 1981: The Lakota Times is first published.