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Historical Events & Related Products

Historical Events & Related Products

Things really heat up on the Prairie during July, if we don't get enough rain, crops will burn, too much rain and crops will suffer as well. Even the folks who raise livestock are dependent on the environment. We are dependent on each other to survive all natural disasters, and hopefully we've learned our lessons from history and do not create hardships for each other.

July 14, 1815: Chief Black Buffalo, Brule' Teton Sioux dies and is given a full military burial. Chief Black Buffalo was instrumental in preventing a bloody fight between the Lewis & Clark expedition and the Teton Sioux. The two groups parted company without any violence.

July 4, 1827: The Cherokees adopt a national constitution completing a decade of political development. Modeled after the United States Constitution, with three branches of government and an abbreviated bill of rights, the Cherokee constitution furthers the transfer of Cherokee political power from the villages to a national government.

July 4, 1838: Chief Black Hawk, a Native American war leader of the Sauk Indian Tribe gave a farewell speech at Old Settlers Park in Fort Madison, Iowa. ~From the publication, Indian Country Today

July 3, 1863: After the end of the Santee Sioux Uprising, Little Crow leaves the area. Eventually he returns to steal horses and supplies so that he and his followers can survive. On this day, near Hutchinson, Minnesota, Little Crow and his son stop to pick some berries. Minnesota has recently enacted a law which pays a bounty of $25.00 for every Sioux scalp. Some settlers see Little Crow and they open fire, Little Crow is mortally wounded. His killer would get a bonus bounty of $500.00. Little Crow's scalp would go on public display in St. Paul. Little Crow's son, Wowinapa, escapes but is later captured in Dakota Territory.

July 1865: General Patrick Conner organizes 3 columns of soldiers to begin an invasion of the Powder River Basin, his orders were to attack and kill every male Indian over twelve years of age from the Black Hills to the Big Horn Mountains. Wagon trains begin to cross the basin on their way to Montana and gold.

July 1866: Colonel Carrington begins to build Ft. Phil Kearny, he makes his plan on the best hunting grounds of the Plains Indians. The Cheyenne scouts decide that the camp is too strong to attack on their own. They form an alliance with other Plains tribes and begin to harass any soldiers leaving or going to the Fort.

July 19, 1881: Sitting Bull and 186 of his remaining followers surrender at Fort Buford, North Dakota. He is sent to Fort Randall, South Dakota for two years as a prisoner of war instead of being pardoned, as promised.

July 16 1887: On July 16, 1887, J.D.C. Atkins, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, wrote in his annual report that English would be the exclusive language used at all Indian schools. He argued that native languages were not only of no use, but were detrimental to the education and civilization of Indians.

July 9, 1981: The Lakota Times is first published.

  1. Sioux War Dispatches: Reports from the Field, 1876-1877

    Sioux War Dispatches: Reports from the Field, 1876-1877

    The Indian Wars of the American West were, in the contemporary public mind, akin to the foreign wars of later centuries. Far distant readers were both thrilled and horrified at the drama being played out in the vast unsettled regions of the country. Learn More
  2. Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy

    Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy

    Never before has the story of Sitting Bull been written and published by a lineal descendant. In Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy, Ernie LaPointe, a great-grandson of the famous Hunkpapa Lakota chief, presents the family tales and memories told to him about his great grandfather. Learn More
  3. Sitting Bull: Prisoner of War

    Sitting Bull: Prisoner of War

    After Sitting Bull's surrender at Fort Buford in what is now North Dakota in 1881, the United States Army transported the chief and his followers down the Missouri River to Fort Randall, roughly seventy miles west of Yankton. The famed Hunkpapa leader remained there for twenty-two months as a prisoner of war. Learn More
  4. 38 Nooses: Lincoln, Little Crow and the Beginning of the Frontier's End

    38 Nooses: Lincoln, Little Crow and the Beginning of the Frontier's End

    In August 1862, after decades of broken treaties, increasing hardship and relentless encroachment on their lands, a group of Dakota warriors convened a council at the teepee of their leader, Little Crow. Knowing the strength and resilience of the young American nation, Little Crow counseled caution, but anger won the day. Forced to either lead his warriors in a war he knew they could not win or leave them to their fates he declared, "[Little Crow] is not a coward: he will die with you." Learn More
  5. Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux

    Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux

    "I, Ta-o-ya-te-du-ta, am not a coward. I will die with you."

    With this statement, Little Crow reluctantly put himself at the head of the Indian forces and plunged his nation into war against the United States. Learn More
  6. Give Me Eighty Men: Women and the Myth of the Fetterman Fight

    Give Me Eighty Men: Women and the Myth of the Fetterman Fight

    The story of what has become popularly known as the Fetterman Fight, near Fort Kearney in present day Wyoming in 1866, is based entirely on this infamous declaration attributed to Capt. William J. Fetterman. Historical accounts cite this statement in support of the premise that bravado, vainglory and contempt for the fort's commander, Col. Henry B. Carrington, compelled Fetterman to disobey direct orders from Carrington and lead his men into a perfectly executed ambush by an alliance of Plains Indians. Learn More
  7. The Fetterman Massacre

    The Fetterman Massacre

    The Fetterman Massacre occurred on December 21, 1866, at Fort Phil Kearny, a small outpost in the foothills of the Big Horns. The second battle in American history from which came no survivors, it became a cause celebre' and was the subject of a congressional investigation. Learn More
  8. America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860-1900

    America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860-1900

    This remarkable study sheds new light on American Indian mission, reservation and boarding school experiences by examining the implementation of English-language instruction and its effects on Native students. A federally mandated system of English-only instruction played a significant role in dislocating Native people from their traditional ways of life in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Learn More
  9. Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull's name is still the best known of any American Indian leader, but his life and legacy have been shrouded with misinformation and half-truths. Learn More

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