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Historical Events & Related Products

Historical Events & Related Products

In the past, the United States gained more land via forced marches and implementing policies detrimental to the indigenous population of North America. However, after two hundred years, American governmental policies became more about recognizing the rights of all citizens, including those of the Native Americans.

April 9, 1754: An Indian slave trader sent a letter to South Carolina Governor J. Glenn asking for permission to use one group of Indians to fight another. "We want no pay, only what we can take and plunder, and what slaves we take to be our own.

April 8, 1756: Governor Robert Morris declared war on the Delaware and Shawnee Indians. Included in his war declaration was "The Scalp Act," which put a bounty on the scalps of Indian men, women and boys.

April 3, 1831: It is believed that this is the date that Sitting Bull was born on. He became a force for his Hunkpapa Lakota people.

April 29, 1860: Navajo chief Manuelito and his warriors attacked Fort Defiance in northeastern Arizona. The fort, the first built in Navajo country, was near livestock grazing land used by the Navajo. Conflict began when the Army claimed the grazing land for their horses.

April 1, 1866: Congress overrides President Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill, giving rights to all persons born in the U.S. (except Indians). The President is empowered to use the Army to enforce the law.

April 30, 1871: One hundred forty four Apaches, most of them women and children, were murdered outside Camp Grant, Arizona, where they had been given asylum, when members of the Tucson Committee of Public Safety arrived with a force of Papago Indians, the Apaches long time enemy. All but 8 of the 144 dead were women and children. They were clubbed to death, hacked to pieces or brained by rocks. The committee members claimed they acted in retaliation for raids of various Apache bands at distant points across the region, but public opinion, particularly in the east, linked the event to the recently investigated Sand Creek Massacre of 1864 as further evidence of Westerner's deep seated hatred for Indians.

April, 1879: Little Wolf brought his people home to Montana near Fort Keogh. They had fought their way back from Oklahoma, refusing to stay in a territory that was not their natural home and defying a law made by a government that was not their own. His group included 33 men, 43 women and 38 children, originally his group was 300. At one point during their harrowing journey, there were 30,000 cavalry trying to locate and kill this band. Their survival is a testimony to the leadership Little Wolf guided his people with.

April 22, 1889: In the first Oklahoma Land Rush, the U.S. government bows to pressure and opens for settlement land that it had previously promised would be a permanent refuge for Native Americans moved from their eastern territories. Native American tribes are paid about $4 million for the parcel of land; by sunset, all 1.92 million acres had been claimed.

April 29, 1994: President Clinton's Executive Memorandum. The president sought to clarify our responsibility to ensure that the United States operates within a government to government relationship, and gives respect to the rights of self governing due to each tribal government.

  1. The Authorized Biography of Sitting Bull by His Great Grandson

    The Authorized Biography of Sitting Bull by His Great Grandson | Box Set | DVD

    Sitting Bull was a leader among his people, the Lakota. He loved them. He sacrificed for them. And he was eventually killed by them. Many historians have written many things about this great leader. But no one knew him better than his family. Ernie LaPointe is Sitting Bull's only living lineal great grandson. Learn More
  2. Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy

    Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy

    Never before has the story of Sitting Bull been written and published by a lineal descendant. In Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy, Ernie LaPointe, a great-grandson of the famous Hunkpapa Lakota chief, presents the family tales and memories told to him about his great grandfather. Learn More
  3. Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull's name is still the best known of any American Indian leader, but his life and legacy have been shrouded with misinformation and half-truths. Learn More
  4. Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States & American Indian Nations

    Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States & American Indian Nations

    Treaties between the federal government and Native Nations rest at the heart of American history. The agreements provided the United States with most of the land and resources it enjoys today and they recognize the nationhood of American Indian Tribes, yet most Americans know little about them. Learn More
  5. Indian Removal - book cover

    Indian Removal

    Originally published in 1932 on the date of the hundredth anniversary of the arrival in Oklahoma of the first Indians as a result of the United States government's relocation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Indian Removal remains today the definitive book in its field. Learn More
  6. From Cochise to Geronimo: The Chiricahua Apaches 1874-1886

    From Cochise to Geronimo: The Chiricahua Apaches 1874-1886

    In the decade after the death of their revered chief Cochise in 1874, the Chiricahua Apaches struggled to survive as a people and their relations with the U.S. government further deteriorated. Learn More
  7. An Indigenous People's History of the United States

    An Indigenous People's History of the United States

    Winner of the 2015 American Book Award.

    Today in the United Staes, there are more than 500 federally recognized Indigenous nations comprising nearly three million people, descendants of the fifteen million Native peoples who once inhabited this land. Learn More

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